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  • Glossary
| Last Updated:31/08/2023



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Autotrophic Plants

Plants which obtain their food exclusively from the inorganic materials of soil, air and water.

Autogenic Factors

Dominating factors of change which are due only to the individuals in a plant community, e.g., shade, root competition, etc.


The ecology of an individual organism or taxonomic group as opposed to syn-ecology which is the ecology of a community.

Assortment Table

A volume table giving the volumes in the round down to various thin-end diameters.

Artificial Regeneration

The process of renewal of a forest by sowing, planting or other artificial means.


The art of cultivating trees primarily for shade or landscape effects.


A place for cultivating and displaying trees.

Annual Ring

A layer of wood produced by the growth of one year.

Anemophilous Plants

Plants pollinated by wind.


A term applied to the zone of vegetation where winter is severe, snowfall heavy, the mean annual temperature is under 450oF. and the mean January temperature below 300oF. In India, alpine zone occurs in the Himalayas at altitudes above 3,030.3 m.

Allogenic Factors

Factors which operate, independently of the plants themselves, to alter the habitat gradually and thus cause changes in the vegetation.


Grouping, following establishment of scattered colonizing invaders as a result of propagation.

Age Gradation

An age class with one year as the interval. Loosely used sometimes as synonymous with age class.

Age Classification

The division of a crop according to differences in age; or the allotment of woods to age classes.

Age Class Distribution

The local occurrence, or proportionate representation, of different age classes in a forest.

Age Class

One of the intervals into which the range of age of trees growing in a forest is divided for classification or use; also the trees falling into such an interval


Biochemical or physical changes occurring in seeds, bulbs, tubers and fruits after harvesting when ripe in the ordinary way; often necessary for subsequent germination or growth.


To establish a forest by artificial means on an area from which forest vegetation has always or long been absent.

Aesthetic Forestry

The practice of forestry with the object of developing or maintaining a forest of high scenic value.

Adventitious Bud

A bud from any part of the stem, leaves or roots that is not connected with the strands of bud-bearing tissue arising from the axils of the leaves.

Advance Thinning

Thinning done in a regular crop in anticipation of suppression; a method developed by Craib and O'Connor for wattle and pine plantations in S. Africa.

Advance Growth

Seedlings, saplings and poles of species of the overwood that have become established naturally in a forest before regeneration fillings are started.

Advance Felling

A felling in advance of working plan prescriptions.

Abnormal Forest

A forest in which, as compared to an acceptable standard, the quantity of material in the growing stock is in deficit or in excess or in which the relative proportions of the age or size classes are defective.


 The estimated allowance for waste of wood material during converson. It also refers to the waste of material incurred to obtain required sizes.


 the compass direction toward which a slope faces.

Aerial release spraying

an aerial application of herbicide to reduce hardwood competition in young pine stands or to eliminate exotic species. This will generally be done on natural stands that have had a pre-commercial thinning.