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| Last Updated:: 06/01/2021

Fibre and Fodder Resource of India

 

Common Fibre and Fodder Resource of India

 

S. No.
Botanical name
Family
Common name
Distribution
Part Used
Utilization
1
Abelmoschus esculentus Linn. Moench.
Malvaceae
Gumbo, Okra, Bhindi
Cultivated throughout India upto 1,200 m.
Stalks
Stalk yields a blast fibre for making ropes.
3
Abroma angusta Linn.
Sterculiaceae
Devil’s cotton, Ulatkambal
Throughout the hotter parts of India
Stem
Stem yields fibre suitable for mixing with jute for twines, sack-cloth, cordage, matting, fishing-lines and hessian. Bark fibre soft, pale and also employed for making ropes.
4
Adina cordifolia Benth. & Hook. f.
Rubiaceae
Yellow wood, Haldu
Throughout India in dry forest from Kumaon to Sikkim.
Leaves, wood
Leaves lopped as fodder. Wood pulp good for manufacturing wrapping, writing and printing papers.
5
Annona squamosa L.
Annonaceae
Custard apple, Sharifa
Cultivated throughout India; Naturrally especially in the W. Peninsula.
Young twigs
Young twigs yield and inferior quality of fibre which is used for making brushes and cordages by ‘Bhil’ and ‘Saharia’ tribes of Kota district.
6
Bacopa monniri (L.) Wettsein.
Scrophulariaceae
Thyme leaved Gratiola; Brahmi
Throughout India upto 1,300 m
Plant
Plant used as fodder.
7
Bauhinia variegate Linn.
Fabaceae
Karayalae, Kachnar
Chir forest throughout India upto 1,800 m.
Leaves, bark
Source of fodder for feeding all classes of livestock throughout the winter. Bark yields a fibre for ropes.
8
Berberis asiatica Roxb.
Berberidaceae
Indian berberry, Chitra
Throughout the area between 900-3,300 m in Himalaya & Nilgiris.
Leaves
Browsed by cattle, sheep and goats.
9
Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.
Verbenaceae
Perfumed cherry, Sumali
Kashmir to Assam and Arunachal Pradesh: 300– 2,000 m.
Leaves
Leaves fed to cattle during scarcity in winter season.
10
Capparis sepiaria L.
Capparidaceae
Indian caper, Kanthari
Throughout India
Leaves
Leaves used for fodder purposes.
11
Celastrus paniculatus Willd.
Celasteraceae
Black oil plant, Makangni
Throughout India upto 1,800 m.
Bark
Bark fibre used for sealing the rims of musical instruments.
12
Daphne cannabina Hook. f.
Thymelaeaceae
Nepal paper plant, Satpura
Temperate Himalaya (Chamba to Bhutan). Khasia & Naga Hills, Manipur.
Bark
Bark fibre good for tying purposes.
13
Deeringia amaranthoides Merril.
Amarantaceae
Lemon
Sub-Himalayan tract from Chenab to Bhutan, Bihar, Bengal, Assam.
Leaves
Leaves much valued as a fodder and said to enhance lactation in cows.
14
Dolichos lablab Linn.
Fabaceae
Indian butter bean, Sem
Cultivated throughout India 1,800-2,200 m.
Pods
Used as fodder.
15
Eichinochola stagnina Beauv.
Poaceae
Banti, Dul
Throughout India
Grass blades
Used as rich fodder for horses and cattle
16
Eichhornia crassipes Solms.
Pontederiaceae
Water hyacinth, Jalakhumbi
Tropical regions of India
Leaves
Leaves eaten by cattle and horses during summer and also a source of cellulose for the manufacture of cover paper.
17
Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Euphorbiaceae
Emblic myrobalan, Amla
Commonly grown in India upto 1,800m
Leaves
Leaves and fruits used as fodder.
18
Ficus glomerata Roxb.
Moraceae
Cluster tree, Gular
Outer Himalaya, plain and low hills of India upto 1,000 m.
Leaves, fruits
Leaves fed to animals in drought and scarcity conditions. Fruits and leaves greedily eaten by cattle and elephants.
19
Furcarea foetida Haw.
Amaryllidaceae
Mauritius hemp, Sissal
Grown in India gardens as an ornamental plant.
Leaves
Leaf fibre good for cordage, mats, ropes and netting the cots.
 
20
Garuga Pinnata Roxb.
Burseraceae
Garuga, Kaikar
Throughout India from the Jammu Eastwards to Myanmar and Southwards to the Nilgiri Hills.
Leaves, fruits
Leaves and fruits used as fodder for cattle.
21
Grewia asiatica L.
Tiliaceae
Asiatic grewia;  Phalsa
Cultivated throughout India; generally in the Gangetic plains and E. Bengal
Bark
Bark fibre for making ropes used for tying purpose.
22
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
Sterculiaceae
Bastard cedar, Nipaltunth
Warmer parts of India.
Leaves, stem
Leaves lopped for fodder. Stem fibre considered good for making ropes.
23
Helianthus annuus Linn.
Asteraceae
Common sun flower, Surajmukhi
Throughout India
Oil cake, leaves
Leaves and oil cake used as fodder for poultry and cattle feed.
24
Hibiscus furcatus Roxb.
Malvaceae
Gumchi
Assam, Chota Nagpur, Mysore, A.P., Kerala
Stem
Fibre suitable for cordage and ropes
25
Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br.
Apocynaceae
Black creeper, Dudhi
W. Himalaya, upper gangetic plains from Delhi to Bengal, Assam
Stem
Stem fibre used for fishing nets, ropes, cordage and baskets.
26
Ixora arborea Roxb.
Rubiaceae
Torch wood ixora, Kota gandhal
Gangetic plains of E. India and S. India
Leaves
Leaves used as fodder for buffaloes.
27
Jasminum multiflorum (Burm.f.)Andr.
Oleaceae
Musk jasmine, Chameli
Common in the sub-himalayan tract upto 1,000 m and W. Ghats.
Leaves
Leaves used as fodder.
28
Koeleria cristata Pers.
Poaceae
Crested hair grass, Mahinghas
Grows on high altitude from Nepal to Kashmir.
Grass blades
Yields good fodder.
29
Lasiosiphon eriocephalus Decne.
Thymelaeaceae
Wooly-headed gnidia, Ramita
Throughout S. India, W. ghats from the Konkan Southwards ascending to 2,000 m on the Nilgiris.
 
Bark
Bark fibre useful for tying bundles and paper manufacture.
30
Lepidium apetalum Willd.
Brassicaceae
Pepper grass
Cultivated throughout India & W. Tibet
 
Whole plant
Plant used as fodder.
31
Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel.
Sapotaceae
Butter tree, Mahua
Throughout W. Bengal, Bihar, Orrisa, M.P., Punjab, U.P. Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan
 
Leaves
Used as fodder for cattle.
32
Momordica balsamina Linn.
Cucurbitaceae
Balsam apple, Makha
Punjab, U.P., Gujarat,N.W. India.
Leaves, Stem
Leaves and stem used as fodder.
33
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Nymphaeaceae
Indian lotus, Kamal
Throughout warmer regions of India
Leaf-stalks
Leaf-stalks yield a fibre
34
Nypa fructicians Wurmb.
Arecaceae
Nipa palm, Galphal
Sunderbans of Bengal, Saurashtra, Andaman Islands
Leaves
Young leaflets used for wrapping cigarettes and mature ones for coarse mats, baskets and bags.
35
Oroxylum indicum Vent.
Bignoniaceae
Indian trumpet flower, Arlu
Throughout greater parts of India from Himalaya to Sri Lanka upto 1,200 m.
 
Twigs
Tree lopped for fodder.
36
Oryza sativa Linn.
Poaceae
Paddy, Chawal
Cultivated throughout India in warmer regions.
 
Rice straw
Rice straw valued as fodder.
37
Phoenix dactylifera Linn.
Arecaceae
Date palm, Khajur
Cultivated in some warmer parts of India
Spathes, Petioles
Fibre from green spathes used for ropes and those from petioles used for making insulating boards.
38
Polygonum aviculare Linn.
Polygonaceae
The knot grass, Ban natia
Kashmir to Kumaon Hills upto 4,000 m. W. Tibet
Leaves
Leaves used as fodder for sheep and goat.
39
Quercus incana Roxb.
Fagaceae
Bank oak, Baj
Kashmir, H.P., Nepal, Garhwal regions 800-2,000 m.
Leaves
Leaves used as fodder for cattle, sheep and goats.
40
Ribes rubrum Linn.
Grossulariaceae
Red currant, Kinkolia
Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon upto 3,500 m.
Leaves
Leaves browsed by sheep and goats during September-October.
41
Rubus niveus Thunb.
Rosaceae
Mysore raspberry, Gowriphal
Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Bhutan
Leaves
Browsed by sheep and goats during rainy season.
42
Salix viminalis L.
Salicaceae
Basket willow, Bibsu
Kashmir to Sikkim upto 3,000 m.
Twigs
Twigs good for cordage.
43
Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken.
Sapindaceae
Lac-tree, Kusum
Kashmir to Garo hills, Bengal. Peninsular Indian upto 900m.
Young shoot
Young shoots lopped for fodder.
44
Trisetum aestivum L.
Poaceae
Wheat, Giun
Cultivated throughout India.
Straw, Green plant
Both green plant and straw considered important fodder.
45
Typha latifolia Linn.
Typhaceae
Elephant grass, Mothitrina
Common in Punjab, Deccan & Kutch
Leaves
Leaves and stem used for making mats, stuffing material, coarse textiles, marine ropes and fishing nets.
46
Ulex europaeus Linn.
Fabaceae
Furze, Gorse
Naturalised on high altitude of India
Foliage
Browsed by sheep and goats and also useful as a substitute for hay.
47
Urochola panicoides Beauv.
Poaceae
Kuri, Barajal ganti
Cultivated on the plains of W. India
Aerial parts
Used as a good fodder for horses and cattle.
48
Vicia sativa Linn.
Fabaceae
Common vetch, Akra
Throughout India
Whole plant
Used as fodder.
49
Vigna acontifolia (Jacq.)
Fabaceae
Aconite Bean, Basunta
Cultivated throughout India
Plant
Plant used as an excellent fodder for livestock.
50
Wikstroemia indica Mey.
Thymelaeaceae
Small leaf salago, Chamlia
Gardens of Assam and Madras
Bark
Fibre used for ropes and high grade paper.
51
Withania sominifera Dunal.
Solanaceae
Aswagandha, Asgandh
Throughout drier, Sub tropical India, frequent in W. India.
Tender shoots
Used as fodder.
52
Yucca aloiffolia Linn.
Agavaceae
Beer grass, Bhalu ghas
Gardens of the tropical regions of India
Leaves
Fibre suitable for ropes, cordage and string.
53
Zea mays Linn.
Poaceae
Indian corn, Bhutta
Cultivated throughout India.
Leaves, stem
Leaves and stems used as fodder for cows and other animals.
54
Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
Rhamnaceae
Common jujube, Ber
Cultivated throughout India.
Leaves
Tree yields fodder. Leaves fed to silkworms.

 

 

Source: Sood, S.K. and Kaushal, Bipin. 2008. Fibre and fodder resources of India. Delhi, SSPH.