Q.1. How to get planting material including genetically superior seeds of different forestry species?
Ans. The planting material including genetically superior seeds of the forestry species mentioned against the name of the institutes can be obtained from them:
a. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun: Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus, Leucaena leucocephala, Poplars (Populus, Shorea robusta, and tropical pines
b. Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur: Acacia, Ailanthus excels, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus, Techomella undulate,
c. Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla: Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Picea smithiana
d. Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore: Azadirachta indica, bamboos, Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Tectona grandis.
e. Institute of Forest Productivity, Ranchi: Acacia catechu, Adina cordifolia, Eucalyptus, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephal, tropical pines.
f. Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore: Bamboos, Casuarin, Dalbergia latifoli, Eucalyptus, Pterocarpus santalinus, Santalum album, Tectona grandis.
g. Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat: Acacia, bamboos, Dipterocarpus retusus, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis.
h. Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur: Acacia nilotica, Albizia procera, Azadirachta indica, bamboos, Eucalyptus, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis.
Q. 2.What kind of planting materials should be used to enhance productivity?
Ans.Clones generally enhance the productivity than the seed materials.
Q. 3. Will I get advice on what kind of trees to plant in my land and how to cultivate them?
Ans. Yes, you may contact the director of the regional ICFRE institutes with the details of your land.
Q.4.Flowering is scanty in the plantations. How to improve it?
Ans. Flowering can be improved by the application of Paclobutrazol.
Q. 5.What is the optimal clonal composition for tamarind orchards? How does it influence in yield patterns?
Ans. Monoclonal plantation should not be done in Tamarind. A minimum of 5 different clones is optimal for high yield.
Q. 6.Why is Eucalyptus targeted for genetic modification studies?
Ans. Eucalyptus is used as a raw material in pulp and rayon industries and is planted even in wastelands. Estimated area under Eucalyptus in India is 25,00,000 ha. Moreover, Eucalyptus is an introduced species and there are no natural populations of Eucalyptus in India, thereby reducing concerns on transgene escape into the wild. Eucalyptus is amenable for in vitro regeneration as well as macro propagation, thus enabling easy propagation of genetically modified trees. The Institute also has an ongoing program for Eucalyptus improvement. Superior genotypes have been selected for seed orchards and plantation programmes.
Q. 7. What are the traits being targeted for genetic modification?
Ans. Presently Osmotin gene is being used for development of transformation protocols. Osmotin gene has been reported to enhance tolerance to salt stress and disease. Eucalyptus is used as a raw material for paper and pulp industry. Genetic modification of lignin and cellulose profiles would be attempted once routine transformation of Eucalyptus is achieved.
Q. 8.How to select a suitable DNA marker system for analysis of different levels of populations?
Ans. In the study on Eucalyptus and Casuarina, the IFGTB, Coimbatore have found that dominant markers like ISSR and RAPD can be used at species level differentiation while ISSR, FISSR, AFLP and SSR were found suitable for sub specific taxa including provenances and clones.
Q. 9.What are the softwares used in genetic diversity estimation using molecular data?
Ans. The softwares used for genetic diversity estimation using DNA marker data (dominant and co dominant include NTSys, POPGENE, WINBOOT, Arlequin and DNAPOP.
Q. 10.How to develop SSRs in species with no sequence information? Is there any alternate strategy available for SSR enrichment?
Ans. Development of a microsatellite marker system for a new species requires isolation, cloning, sequencing and characterization of microsatellite loci. Several procedures are available for the enrichment of microsatellites in genomic library like use of anchored repeat primers or probes to improve the efficiency of microsatellite isolation The development of microsatellite markers through these laboratory based screening of SSR libraries is highly time consuming and expensive. An alternate strategy is to cross amplify SSRs across species or genera followed by construction of enriched library and subsequent sequencing and development of primers. This strategy was used to develop SSRs in Casuarina equisetifolia.
Q. 11.Are there any specific DNA markers to identify different Eucalyptus species?
Ans. The species-specific ISSR markers for E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. urophylla and E. citriodora have been developed, while no specific markers could be detected in E. tereticornis. However, work is in progress in ICFRE to identify SSR markers specific to E. tereticornis.
Q. 12. What are the advantages of association mapping over QTL mapping?
Ans. Association mapping is a recent concept used in phenotype &ndash marker association based on linkage disequilibrium (LD existing in a natural population while QTL mapping involves linkage of marker with trait in a segregating population. In tree species with long gestation period, generation of segregating populations with contrasting phenotypes is time-consuming, hence, association mapping on candidate genes can be an alternate approach where an unstructured population can be used. Here the marker is present very close to the candidate gene (in kilobasepairs or within the candidate gene as SNPs reducing the number of segregating generations for validation.
Q. 13. What are the different bamboo species for which tissue culture protocol has been developed?
Ans. We have already developed tissue culture protocols for Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa arundinacea and Oxytenanthera stocksii while for other bamboo species like Bambusa nutans and Dendrocalamus giganteus the protocols are presently being developed.
Q. 14. What are the cost reduction strategies followed for in vitro multiplication of bamboos?
Ans. The cost reduction methods include use of liquid media, commercially available sugar instead of sucrose and ex vitro rooting of microshoots.
Q. 15. Have the tissue culture plants evaluated for their performance in the field?
Ans. The field-testing tissue culture raised plants of bamboo are being compared for their growth performance with seedlings and vegetative propagated material.
Q. 16.I intend to cultivate medicinal plants where do I find market for these? Please guide?
Ans. You may contact regional institutes of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education for help on the issue.
Q. 17. Is there any service available to diagnose pests and disease problems of forest seeds, nurseries and plantations?
Ans. Expert help is available for diagnosis of pests and disease in forest nurseries and plantations. Please contact regional institutes of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education.
Q. 18. Are the methods of management of pests and diseases problems of forestry species available?
Ans. Methods of management of key pests and diseases problems of specific forestry tree species like Acacia, Albizia, Casuarina, Eucalyptus, neem, poplars, sal, sheesham, tamarind, teak, etc. can be obtained from the regional institutes of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education.
Q. 19.What are the tested eco-friendly methods of management of pests and disease of forestry species?
Ans. Use of different plant products and microbial agents for management of selective insect pests of seeds, nurseries and younger plantations of commercially important tree species like Acacia, Albizia, Casuarina, Eucalyptus, neem, poplars, sal, sheesham, tamarind, teak, etc are evaluated and standardized.
Q. 20. Is there expertise available on biofertilizers?
Ans. Expertise available for isolation, identification and mass production of tree species specific ecto and endo mycorrhizal biofertilizers. Please contact regional institutes of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education.
Q. 21.Whether identification services are available in the Herbarium?
Ans. Yes, identification of forest plant species are undertaken on payment of fee as per ICFRE rates. Each plant specimen should be accompanied by notes on its habit, habitat and information on flower and fruit characters and other relevant details, for taxonomical identification of the species. Correspond on the issue with the Head, Botany Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun.
Q. 22. Can Forest Research Institute, Dehradun provide seeds of different forestry species?
Ans. The seeds of only the species occurring in the New Forest campus are collected and sold by the Forest Research Institute. If large quantities of seeds are required then prior order has to be placed with the Silviculture division of the Institute.
Q. 23. Is their a Forest Seed Certification Act in India?
Ans. No, Seed Certification Act for forestry seeds is not in force in this country, however, some state forest departments may certify seeds collected from their state.
Q. 24. What parameters of forestry seeds are tested for its quality testing? Ans. Seeds are tested for their physical (colour, size, weight, damage/infestation and physiological (viability, vigour, germinability quality through standard tests and procedures.
Q. 25. Which seed testing guidelines are largely followed by laboratories in India?
Ans. International Rules for Seed Testing by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA.
Q. 26.Whether plant samples are identified?
Ans. Yes, angiosperm plant samples are identified.
Q. 27. What is the procedure for plant sample identification?
Ans. Plant samples should be complete (i.e. should have leaves, twig, etc. and complete plant in case of herb and completely dried and pressed in herbarium sheet.
Q. 28. Whether accession no. to plant specimens is provided by the Botany Division?
Q. 29. Whether wood samples are also identified?
Ans. Yes. Wood samples are identified on the basis of anatomical characters.
Q. 30. Who should be contacted for identification of plant and wood specimens?
Ans. Head, Botany Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun
Q. 31. What are charges for plant and wood sample identification?
Ans. For Plant Rs. 250/- (plus service tax per samples and for wood Rs. 10,000/- (plus service tax per sample
Q. 32.Whether samples can be sent by post?
Q. 33. What is the procedure for the consultation of herbarium of the Forest Research Institute?
Ans. Any researchers can consult the Herbarium. He has to provide the request letter from Head of Department of his affiliated Institute/university/College
Q. 34. Whether researchers/students can visit the Botanical garden of the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun?
Ans. Yes. However, prior permission from Head, Botany Division is required.
Q. 35. Whether bamboo rhizomes are available?
Q. 36. What are the charges bamboo rhizomes?
Ans. Rs. 300/- per rhizomes plus service tax excluding packing and labour charges.
Q. 37.What is the moisture in the wood?
Ans. When a live tree is cut in the forest, its wood contains a large amount of water. This is called moisture in wood. For most of the end products like cricket bats, hockey sticks, furniture, door and window frames etc. this high amount of moisture is unwanted.
Q. 38. What should be the moisture content in our finished wooden products?
Ans. For most of the wooden products mentioned above, the final moisture content before making the product should be in the range of 8-12 per cent of its oven-dry weight.
Q. 39. How one can measure moisture in wood?
Ans. The moisture in wood can be measured by using hand held portable moisture meters with some precautions and another method is to use oven-dry method.
Q. 40. How to use moisture meter?
Ans. Pin type moisture meter comes with attached pins known as electrodes. In order to measure moisture in wood, pins are pressed in the wood so that they are inserted to a certain depth in the wood. The quantity of moisture present in the wood is displayed in the meter. In case of sensor type moisture meter, the meter is placed on the surface of the wood so that it should make good contact with the wood. By proper selection of wood category in the meter, we directly get the moisture content reading in the meter.
Q. 41. Is moisture meter reliable?
Ans. Portable moisture meters are fairly reliable for measuring moisture content of thin sections like plywood veneers. They give reliable reading when moisture present in the wood is in the range of 8 &ndash 40 per cent. Beyond this range chances of error are high. For thicker sections one cannot completely rely on portable moisture meters.
Q. 42.How much a good quality moisture meter will cost?
Ans. About Rs. 6,000-8,000 (Pin type and Rs. 20,000-30,000 (sensor type.
Q. 43. What is more reliable method of knowing moisture in wood?
Ans. The more reliable method for knowing the moisture content in wood is oven-dry method as explained in IS: 11215. The standard can be procured from a Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS sales Office.
Q. 44. How much a good quality laboratory oven will cost? Where is it available?
Ans. A good quality laboratory oven will cost about 25,000/-. It can be ordered to any supplier dealing with scientific equipments.
Q. 45. How much a solar seasoning kiln will cost?
Ans. A solar seasoning kiln of 250-cft capacity costs approximately Rs. 5.5 lakh as on date. This does not include the cost of land.
Q. 46. Who can install a kiln for us?
Ans. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun provides all technical help in installation of a solar kiln on payment basis.
Q. 47. What are the advantages of seasoning?
Ans. The main advantages of seasoning the wood before making a product are- a. Seasoning reduces the likelihood of mould, stain, or decay. b. Seasoning reduces weight and thereby reduces transporting and handling costs. c. As wood dries, most of its strength properties also improve. d. The shrinkage that accompanies drying takes place before the wood is used as a product. e. Strength of joints made with nails and screws is greater in dried wood than in green. f. Wood must be relatively dry before it can be glued or treated with preservatives and fire retardant chemicals. g. Drying improves finishing characteristics of wood.
Q. 48.Do you recommend us to season our wood before making sports good products?
Ans. Yes, the advantages are explained above.
Q. 49. How much does seasoning cost?
Ans. In solar kiln the final cost of drying is approximately Rs. 40-50/- per cft. of wood. This includes all the overheads like labour cost, electrical cost for running the fans, etc.
Q. 50.Why wood develops cracks during drying?
Ans.It is due to excessive moisture loss in a short duration.
Q. 51. How to protect wood logs/planks from end cracking?
Ans. The cracks at the ends can be avoided by coating with the ends with bitumen paint or other sealants.
Q. 52. Once wood is seasoned will it be always dry?
Ans. Wood is a hygroscopic material. During various operations like sawing, boring, mortising, planning, etc. done on wood for making a product, the cells of wood present on the surface cut open. If these cut cells are not sealed properly by using, primer and paint coats, wax coats, etc., wood absorbs water from surrounding atmosphere, particularly during rainy season and gets wet. Hence, it is necessary to seal a product with coatings so that it becomes dimensionally stable. Sealing is also necessary for avoiding surface cracks in products during its service life.
Q. 53. What are the best months for buying logs in order to avoid end cracks?
Ans. One can apply bitumen paint on the sawn ends of a log to avoid cracks and buy such logs in any month.
Q. 54. Why kikar and shisham crack during air-drying?
Ans. Drying of wood in air is not always healthy for wood. There is no control over RH and temperature during air-drying. In order to avoid cracks in wood it should be kiln dried. Inside kiln one has control over temperature and relative humidity. Drying in controlled environment helps in controlling the cracks as well as other drying defects also.
Q. 55. What is the need of wood preservation?
Ans. Wood preservation is necessary to enhance the service life of wood and to protect it from insect, fungi, borer and termite attacks.
Q. 56. Why wood surface turns black during storage?
Ans. Due to attack by sap stain fungus.
Q. 57.How to protect the wood from fungus and termite attack during storage?
Ans. During the storage we can protect the wood by giving prophylactic treatment by spraying the preservative solution.
Q. 58. How to treat the wood with chemical preservatives?
Ans. For short-term protection, wood can be treated by brushing, spraying of chemicals or dipping of wood in preservative solution.
Q. 59. How to stack the wood after treatment?
Ans. After treatment stacking should be done under shade or cover.
Q. 60. After how many days prophylactic treatment of wood is to be repeated?
Ans. After every three months.
Q. 61.How to store the wood?
Ans. Wood should be stored after giving prophylactic treatment and stacking it under shade or cover.
Q. 62. Does prophylactic treatment needs to be repeated, if wood becomes wet during rain or otherwise?
Q. 63. How to grade the raw material timber?
Ans. According to the grain structure and defects like knots, pinhole, pith, etc.
Q. 64.How to grade the products?
Ans. According to the grain structure and defects like knots, pinhole, pith, etc.
Q. 65. How can we get good quality material?
Ans. By grading the material at source and at every level.
Q. 66. How stroke of bat can be checked?
Ans. By traditional practiced used by the manufacturer, but till now no scientific methods developed.
Q. 67.What alternate species can be used for cricket bat?
Ans. Traditionally English willow and Kashmir willow are used for cricket bat. But for alternative species, extensive study is required.
Q. 68. Is something done for tree improvement of willow timber?
Q. 69. What is an adhesive?
Ans. Adhesives may be defined as any substance capable of attaching materials together by means of surface attachment. This property is not necessarily an intrinsic characteristic of the substance itself since the adhesive may be much weaker than the materials joined together, but it is developed as the adhesive interacts with the adherents under certain conditions of temperature and pressure.
Q. 70. What is a wood adhesive?
Ans. A liquid material, which is able to wet the surface of wood and which afterwards can be hardened may be considered an adhesive. In this way the surfaces of wood are bonded together by surface attachment. The term is synonymous with other terms like glue, binder and resin.
Q. 71. What does hardening of glue means?
Ans. The change of liquid state of the glue into a solid state with the loss of solvent during curing process is known as hardening of the glue. It may be in two ways: a. By physical change: In case of thermoplastic resins, it is due to diffusion and evaporation of the resin or due to cooling of the molten liquid on a cooler surface. b. By chemical change: In case of thermosetting synthetic resins, it is due to chemical reaction and polymerization of the resins.
Q. 72. What are thermosetting adhesives?
Ans. Which harden or sets on heating and does not soften on reheating like urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde, etc.
Q. 73. What are thermoplastic adhesives?
Ans. The adhesives, which melts on heating and solidify on cooling? The process is reversible like polyvinyl adhesives, animal glue, etc.
Q. 74. Can wood of hockey blade be bent by any process better than boiling in water and then bending?
Ans. Wood plasticization by vapour phase ammonia treatment is a technique for making bent wood furniture. This technique seems to be promising for the purpose. Research work is required for perfection of ammonia plasticization technique for bending wood meant for hockey blade.
Q. 75. Can we use some woods other than tooth (mulberry for hockey blade?
Ans. Once bending of hockey blade by ammonia plasticization is perfected, the possibilities are there to widen the species base for the purpose.
Q. 76. Can Forest Research Institute, Dehradun provide us the wood bending technology using ammonia plasticization of wood?
Ans. Yes, the institute can provide the technology as well as training in this aspect on payment basis once patent is awarded for it, which is expected in near future.
Q.77. Is seasoning of wood recommended for manufacturing of sports goods?
Ans. Yes, it is essential to season the wood before manufacturing of sports goods.